Cosmos


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Therefore, the COSMOS-standard sets out innovative, challenging and progressive criteria for organic and natural cosmetics that consumers can trust, and that are clear for the industry and good for the environment. If in doubt, please check the English language version. COSMOS-certified products are produced to the highest standards for organic and natural cosmetics, and are safe, effective and good to use. They are easy to identify from their labels which contain all the information you need to choose if the product fulfils your needs and expectations.

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Hotel «Cosmos», Moscow

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Show reviews that mention. All reviews tasting menu beef cheeks sorbet salad meatballs sea bass bread steak modern twist beautiful presentation michelin star traditional bulgarian cuisine dining experience a great evening fine dining visit sofia nice interior. Selected filters. Updating list Josephine B. Reviewed yesterday A tribute to Bulgaria. Date of visit: September Thank Josephine B. Reviewed yesterday via mobile Amazing!

Thank ndac. Reviewed yesterday via mobile Excellent. Thank jh Reviewed 1 week ago via mobile Wow just wow! Thank Travelingislife Thank michalk Reviewed 1 week ago via mobile Super place. Reviewed 1 week ago via mobile Good Thank aadrianp. Tyson first describes how the Earth was formed from the coalescence of matter some millions of years after the formation of the Sun, and while scientists can examine the formations in rock stratum to date some geological events, these can only trace back millions of years. Instead, scientists have used the debris from meteor impacts, such as the Meteor Crater in Arizona, knowing that the material from such meteors coming from the asteroid belt would have been made at the same time as the Earth.

Tyson then outlines the work Patterson did as a graduate under his adviser Harrison Brown to provide an accurate count of lead in zircon particles from Meteor Crater, and to work with similar results being collected by George Tilton on uranium counts; with the established half-life of uranium's radioactive decay to lead, this would be used to estimate the age of the Earth. Patterson found that his results were contaminated by lead from the ambient environment, compared to Tilton's results, and required the construction of the first ultra-high cleanroom to remove all traces of environmental lead.

With these clean results, Patterson was able to estimate the age of the Earth to 4. This episode provides an overview of the composition of stars, and their fate in billions of years. Tyson describes how early humans would identify stars via the use of constellations that tied in with various myths and beliefs, such as the Pleiades. Tyson describes the work of Edward Charles Pickering to capture the spectra of multiple stars simultaneously, and the work of the Harvard Computers or "Pickering's Harem" , a team of women researchers under Pickering's mentorship, to catalog the spectra.

This team included Annie Jump Cannon , who developed the stellar classification system, and Henrietta Swan Leavitt , who discovered the means to measure the distance from a star to the Earth by its spectra, later used to identify other galaxies in the universe. Later, this team included Cecilia Payne , who would develop a good friendship with Cannon; Payne's thesis based on her work with Cannon was able to determine the composition and temperature of the stars, collaborating with Cannon's classification system.

This episode explores the palaeogeography of Earth over millions of years, and its impact on the development of life on the planet. Tyson starts by explaining that the lignin -rich trees evolved in the Carboniferous era about million years ago, were not edible by species at the time and would instead fall over and become carbon-rich coal. Tyson then explains the nature of plate tectonics that would shape the landmasses of the world. Tyson explains how scientists like Abraham Ortelius hypothesized the idea that land masses may have been connected in the past, Alfred Wegener who hypothesized the idea of a super-continent Pangaea and continental drift despite the prevailing idea of flooded land-bridges at the time, and Bruce C.

Heezen and Marie Tharp who discovered the Mid-Atlantic Ridge that supported the theory of plate tectonics. Tyson describes how the landmasses of the Earth lay atop the mantle , which moves due to the motion and heat of the Earth's outer and inner core. This episode provides an overview of the nature of electromagnetism , as discovered through the work of Michael Faraday. Tyson explains how the idea of another force of nature, similar to gravitational forces, had been postulated by Isaac Newton before.

Tyson continues on Faraday, coming from poor beginnings, would end up becoming interested in studying electricity after reading books and seeing lectures by Humphry Davy at the Royal Institution. Davy would hire Faraday after seeing extensive notes he had taken to act as his secretary and lab assistant. Davy, bitter over Faraday's breakthrough, put Faraday on the task of improving the quality of high-quality optical glass, preventing Faraday from continuing his research. Faraday, undeterred, continued to work in the Royal Institution, and created the Christmas Lectures designed to teach science to children.

Following Davy's death, Faraday returned to full time efforts studying electromagnetism, creating the first electrical generator by inserting a magnet in a coil of wires. This episode covers how life may have developed on Earth and the possibility of life on other planets. Tyson begins by explaining how the human development of writing systems enabled the transfer of information through generations, describing how Princess Enheduanna ca.

Tyson explains how DNA similarly records information to propagate life, and postulates theories of how DNA originated on Earth, including evolution from a shallow tide pool, or from the ejecta of meteor collisions from other planets. In the latter case, Tyson explains how comparing the composition of the Nakhla meteorite in to results collected by the Viking program demonstrated that material from Mars could transit to Earth, and the ability of some microbes to survive the harsh conditions of space.

With the motions of solar systems through the galaxy over billions of years, life could conceivably propagate from planet to planet in the same manner.

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This episode explores the nature of the greenhouse effect discovered by Joseph Fourier and Svante Arrhenius , and the evidence demonstrating the existence of global warming from humanity's influence. Tyson begins by describing the long-term history of the planet Venus; based on readings from the Venera series of probes to the planet, the planet once had an ocean and an atmosphere, but due to the release of carbon dioxide from volcanic eruptions , the runaway greenhouse effect on Venus caused the surface temperatures to increase and boiled away the oceans.

Tyson then notes the delicate nature of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can influence Earth's climate due to the greenhouse effect, and that levels of carbon dioxide have been increasing since the start of the 20th century. Evidence has shown this to be from humankind's consumption of oil , coal, and gas instead of from volcanic eruptions due to the isotopic signature of the carbon dioxide.

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The increase in carbon dioxide has led to an increase in temperatures, in turn leading to positive feedback loops of the melting polar ice caps and dethawing of the permafrost to increase carbon dioxide levels. Tyson begins the episode by noting how the destruction of the Library of Alexandria lost much of humanity's knowledge to that point. He then contrasts on the strive for humanity to continue to discover new facts about the universe and the need to not close off further discovery.

Tyson then proceeds to describe the discovery of cosmic rays by Victor Hess through high-altitude balloon trips, where radiation increased the farther one was from the surface. Swiss Astronomer Fritz Zwicky , in studying supernovae , postulated that these cosmic rays originated from these events instead of electromagnetic radiation. Zwicky would continue to study supernovae, and by looking at standard candles that they emitted, estimated the movement of the galaxies in the universe.

His calculations suggested that there must be more mass in the universe than those apparent in the observable galaxies, and called this dark matter. Initially forgotten, Zwicky's theory was confirmed by the work of Vera Rubin , who observed that the rotation of stars at the edges of observable galaxies did not follow expected rotational behavior without considering dark matter.

This further led to the proposal of dark energy as a viable theory to account for the universe's increasing rate of expansion.

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