Yurinets and the Freudian analyst Siegfried Bernfeld both discussed the topic. The Soviet linguist Valentin Voloshinov , a member of the Bakhtin circle , began a Marxist critique of psychoanalysis in his article "Beyond the Social", which he developed more substantially in his book Freudianism: A Marxist Critique.
Wilhelm Reich     was an Austrian psychoanalyst, a member of the second generation of psychoanalysts after Sigmund Freud , and one of the most radical figures in the history of psychiatry. His writing influenced generations of intellectuals: during the student uprisings in Paris and Berlin, students scrawled his name on walls and threw copies of The Mass Psychology of Fascism at the police.
The Frankfurt School , from the Institute for Social Research , took up the task of choosing what parts of Marx's thought might serve to clarify social conditions which Marx himself had never seen. They drew on other schools of thought to fill in Marx's perceived omissions. Max Weber exerted a major influence, as did Sigmund Freud. Max Horkheimer , Paris , Erich Fromm authored the social-psychological part. Another new member of the institute was Herbert Marcuse , who would become famous during the s in the US.
Eros and Civilization is one of Marcuse's best known early works. Written in , it is an attempted dialectical synthesis of Marx and Freud whose title alludes to Freud's Civilization and its Discontents. Marcuse's vision of a non-repressive society which runs rather counter to Freud's conception of society as naturally and necessarily repressive , based on Marx and Freud, anticipated the values of s countercultural social movements.
In the book, Marcuse writes about the social meaning of biology — history seen not as a class struggle , but fight against repression of our instincts. He argues that capitalism if never named as such is preventing us from reaching the non-repressive society "based on a fundamentally different experience of being, a fundamentally different relation between man and nature, and fundamentally different existential relations".
Erich Fromm , once a member of the Frankfurt School , left the group at the end of the s. The culmination of Fromm's social and political philosophy was his book The Sane Society , published in , which argued in favor of humanist, democratic socialism. Building primarily upon the works of Karl Marx , Fromm sought to re-emphasise the ideal of personal freedom, missing from most Soviet Marxism, and more frequently found in the writings of classic liberals.
Fromm's brand of socialism rejected both Western capitalism and Soviet communism , which he saw as dehumanizing and bureaucratic social structures that resulted in a virtually universal modern phenomenon of alienation. Jacques Lacan was a philosophically sophisticated French psychoanalyst, whose perspective came to predominate in French psychiatry and psychology. Lacan saw himself as loyal to and rescuing Freud's legacy. Lacan's influence has created a new cross-fertilisation of Freudian and Marxist ideas.
Louis Althusser is widely known as a theorist of ideology , and his best-known essay is Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses: Notes Toward an Investigation. The essay establishes the concept of ideology, also based on Gramsci's theory of hegemony. Whereas hegemony is ultimately determined entirely by political forces, ideology draws on Freud's and Lacan's concepts of the unconscious and mirror-phase respectively, and describes the structures and systems that allow us to meaningfully have a concept of the self.
These structures, for Althusser, are both agents of repression and inevitable — it is impossible to escape ideology, to not be subjected to it. After a stage of homosexuality, the development passes into the genital heterosexuality of the normal adult. But the child may not be sufficiently free of the ties to one of the infantile objects of his sexuality.
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Either his emotions can be fixated there, or because of unpleasant experiences in later life may regress to one of the earlier emotional states. Most psychoses and abnormal character traits are rooted in the recognition of emotional needs which are not permitted to enter consciousness. They all represent a retreat from reality.
The method of psychoanalysis, with its delving into the life history of the patient makes conscious to him the unconscious causes of his neurosis and so helps him overcome it. Because the main development of the instinctual life takes place in childhood, the research into the psychological structure of the family is one of the chief purposes of the theories discussed here. The roots of morals and religion in man are reduced to the influences of education.
The metaphysical character of morals is thus dissolved. The whole ideology of society is reproduced in the child during its first four or five years.
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The family is understood as the psychological agency of society. It is the factory of ideologies. The various forms of suppressing its emotional drives in the bourgeois family make the infant timid, susceptible to authority and obedient — in a word, it can be educated. Through the family authoritarian society produces the authoritarian type of mind.
It is the result of an incomplete development of emotional life and a weakness of rational power, both due to repressions in childhood typical of that form of society. The authoritarian attitude is characterized through its different reactions, depending on whether they are directed against a strong or weak individual. If personalities can be roughly divided into two types, of which one is principally aggressive toward those in power and sympathetic to the helpless, and the other is in sympathy with the rulers and aggressive to the oppressed, then the authoritarian type is an obvious representative of the latter.
One of its characteristics is to suffer without complaint. But the authoritarian man is ambivalent; he loves and hates his gods simultaneously and thus often rebels blindly against the existing power. His irrational revolt, however, does not change his emotional structure or the structure of society. It merely substitutes a new authority for the old. The real revolutionary personality, as contrasted to the authoritarian type, is rational and open to reality; in other words, represents the full-grown adult who is not governed through a combination of fear of punishment and desire for approbation by paternal authority.
His heroism lies in the changing of the material world — the heroism of the authoritarian type in submission to destiny. The more the contradictions in society grow, the blinder and more uncontrollable the social forces become, the more catastrophes as war and unemployment overshadow the life of the individual, — the stronger and more widespread becomes the emotional structure of the authoritarian personality.
Its final abolition is conceivable only in the eradication of the planlessness of social life and the creation of a society in which men order their life rationally and actively. So the findings of the psychoanalysts show that the planlessness in economics produces and is reproduced by men whose psychic structures are also planless. They are bound and subjected to the ruling class through the unconscious and, therefore, uncontrollable emotional forces, and through the irrational power of the conventional creeds they erected in themselves.
Only the diminishing of these irrational ties, the increasing of rationality — can strengthen the ability of men to change the social conditions. Only a kind of propaganda and organization takes this into account will be capable of achieving a real revolutionary effect. As long as the masses tolerate a propaganda made up of ideological slogans and revolutionary organizations built on blind loyalty to leaders, the level of class consciousness necessary for a radical change of the ruling order is not attained.
Because a criticism of psychoanalysis itself is not our concern here, we restrict ourselves to a few remarks on this point.
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There is no doubt that the superego hypothesis meets many objections. These theoretical weaknesses are due to the fact that the basis of clinical observations on which psychoanalysis has been built is too narrow to interpret the complex human and social activities it undertakes to explain. The practical psychiatrist, in drawing his bold generalizations from a constricted field of observations, often simply extends the intellectual attitude he had toward his patient. This is made possible by the conditions of our society which present a picture similar to the abnormal case in psychiatry.
This abnormality of society which the Freudians with their method of inquiry find reflected in the individual, is the subject of Marxian analysis. However, the conclusions of the psychoanalytic theory as we developed them here are not accepted by the overwhelming majority of its adherents.
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Neither Freud nor most of his disciples maintain these viewpoints. Because they accept bourgeois society as permanent, they do not believe in the possibility of changing the objective force-relationships which, as we explained, are decisive factors for the existence of the emotional structure. They vacillate between a progressive bourgeois attitude of the nineteenth century and the misanthropic pessimism of modern authoritarian society.
Freud himself, as well as many of his most renowned disciples, tends more and more to a nihilistic attitude. This is partly due to the constructive tendency of the psychoanalytic theory which allows numerous intellectual loopholes. Erich Fromm justly criticizes the formalistic parallel Freud draws between the helplessness of the child in the family and the adult in face of social forces. This is not only a parallel but a complicated interconnection. It is not the biological helplessness of the small child which is the decisive factor in its specific need for a definite form of authority, but it is the social helplessness of the adult, determined by his economic situation, which molds the biological helplessness of the child and which thus influences the concrete form of the development of authority in the child.
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Only if the influences of the economic conditions on the libidinous impulses are sufficiently considered can the mental behavior of the individual be adequately interpreted. A social psychology which, on this scientific basis, attempts to explain the socially relevant, common psychic structures of individuals in a group must be in accordance with the Marxian interpretation of society. The conformity of its results with the revolutionary criticism of society will not be due only to the general analogy between the neurotic person and our disorganized society.
For, the larger the group considered, the more are the common life experiences of its members, from which it explains social behavior, identical with the socioeconomic situation which is the subject of the critical theory of society.
In this identity lies the strength of analytic social psychology and its crucial weakness. It seems rather that the cart were put before the horse, that it is not social psychology which serves Marxian analysis but the latter which helps our psychology find its concrete conceptions. And in fact, the Marxian critical interpretation of the dehumanized existence of man under capitalism leads to a much more comprehensive understanding of the human traits and relationships which are decisive for the changing of society.
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