Correspondence to: Jack Donnelly Jack. Donnelly du. I characterize contemporary international governance instead in terms of a comparative analytical framework of general applicability based on a reconceptualization of the nature of international political structures.
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Contemporary international society, I argue, can best be modeled as a states system with a heavy heterarchic overlay? It is only the start to the story to say that the overwhelming predominance of strong and robust multifunctional states exercising territorial jurisdiction, which created modern state-centric governance, is being overlaid with and perhaps is giving way to heterarchic multi-level, multi-actor, non-territorial governance.
I argue, though, that it is a good start that allows us to investigate potential paths of change systematically and comparatively. Keywords : international system, heterarchy, global governance, international society, international human rights.
Heterarchy and the analysis of complex societies (1995)
A Waltzian International System Fig. A Simple States System Fig. A Multipolar States System Fig. A Heterarchic International System. Unfortunately, in emphasizing the historical novelty of contemporary forms of rule, governance is often defined to mean this kind of rule. Rhodes defines governance as an activity of self-organizing networks. That, though, is well beyond my scope here. It has been widely employed in cybernetics and computer science.
In the social sciences, heterarchy has been relatively widely employed in Archaeology-Crumley and Ehrenreich, Crumley, and Levy are the seminal works-and in the study of business organization, see Hedlund , Stark , Wall and van der Knaap Murphy focuses on the regulation of industry and technology. Hill remains a useful survey of the development of the conference form, with special attention to peace and security issues. The great limitation of this mechanism, however, is that the Court cannot invalidate national legislation but only provide compensation to individual victims.
Recalcitrant states thus often continue their violations, producing a series of essentially identical cases returning to the Court - although even a country like Russia is generally scrupulous in executing the judgments of the ECHR. The situation is even more complicated in countries with functionally specialized courts, such as France and Germany. For an illuminating case study, considered in the context of national legal pluralism, see Stone Sweet and Stranz Economic and social rights are specified in the European Social Charter. See, for example, Hooghe and Marks ; and Bache and Flinders Schakel, Hooghe, and Marks is a good brief recent survey.
Even in national systems with a very strong center, certain tasks are carried out primarily at the local or provincial level. Similarly, states systems, where most governance is provided at the level of the state, usually have at least limited international governance, making governance multi-level.
The utility of the frame, however, can be significantly enhanced by contrasting multi-level governance with the primarily one-level governance of state systems. See, for example, Marks, Hooghe, and Blank , one of the first major uses of the term. More moderate visions, focusing explicitly on governance, include Kobrin and Held , Zielonka is a particularly interesting application of the concept to thinking about the evolution of Europe in fundamentally non-statist terms.
Here too, though, localism predominated, although the units were urban-centered and, especially in Castile and Italy, larger and more complex. Sell, eds. Governs the Globe? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Bache, Ian and Matthew Flinders, eds. Brand, Ulrich. Bull, Hedley.
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Heterarchy and the Analysis of Complex Societies
Milton Park Abingdon: Routledge. Rhodes, R. Rosenau, James N. Ba and Matthew J. Hoffmann eds. Sadurski, Wojciech.
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