The needs and requirement of farmer equal the consumption at home, plus distribution, plus seed and plus non-human feed usages. The total produce sold by the farm household is termed as the marketed surplus i. The marketed surplus has been calculated by subtracting buy back from the total sale gross sale. The Relationship between Marketed Surplus and Marketable Surplus The marketed surplus is more than marketable surplus when the farmer retains a smaller quantity of the crop than the actual requirements for family and farm needs.
It is especially true for small and marginal farmers whose need for cash is immediate Distress Sales. In case of large farmers, having better retention capacity or in case of fall in relative price to a competing crop leading to substitution there is retention of the crop and marketed surplus may be less than the marketable surplus. In the case of perishable commodities and for the average farmer, the marketed surplus is equal to the marketable surplus. Descriptive statistics percentage, mean, range, standard deviation, etc.
International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, , 6 1 : 3. Factor Analysis Factor analysis is a multivariate statistical technique that addresses itself to the study of interrelationships among a total set of observed variables. The technique allows looking at groups of variables that tend to be correlated to one another and identify underlying dimensions that explain these correlations. While in multiple regression model, one variable is explicitly considered as the dependent variable and all the other variables as the predictors; in factor analysis, all the variables are considered as dependent variables simultaneously.
In a sense, each of the observed variables is considered as a dependent variable that is a function of some underlying, latent, and hypothetical set of factors. Conversely, one can look at each factor as the dependent variable that is a function of the observed variables. The coefficient l ij is the loading of the i-th variable on the j-th factor. In matrix notation, the factor analysis model can be expressed as, 1. Several methods are available in the literature to estimate factor loadings and factor scores.
The study considers the principal component method to estimate the factor loadings and communalities. The descriptive statistics percentage, mean, mean comparison, correlation coefficient, coefficient of variation, etc. Type of fruit variety owned by the respondent. Total Production of Selected Seasonal Fruits Among the four fruits variety of mango, total production of Amrapali, rangui, mallika and local variety was We see notably that Rangui variety ranks the highest average than the others.
Total production of jackfruit is on an average in numbers per household respectively from the selected study areas of Bandarban and Rangamati Table 4. This increasing trend is observed because of their awareness in the adoption of management issue and practices. Total Production of seasonal fruits according to variety by the farmer. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, , 6 1 : kg , Ramripara kg , Paglachora para kg , Munlaypara kg and two zone of Rangamati such as Mohajon para kg and Manikchori 41 kg recorded as the lowest in requirement. That means only requirement share was highest in Laymipara and for the other areas, its share was lowest.
The consumption and other requirement played an important role in determining marketable surplus. The notable things to mention that while the total requirement was higher for laymipara but in case of marketable surplus, it can be interpreted from the table that Munlaypara had the highest marketable surplus because of the fact that their average total production was higher than the other areas.
The share of the marketable surplus was lower for manikchori 40 kg , followed by mohajon para kg of Rangamati. It can be visible to mention that share of marketable surplus is positively related to the total production of seasonal fruits.
Same things also happen when estimating for net marketed surplus. Among all the eight farmers' organization, Munlaypara was in the highest position for net marketed surplus while manikchori had negative net marketed surplus. As their total production was lower, they had to buy back more from the market than their sold amount. For that case, marketable and marketed surplus was lower in case of manikchori.
It can be interpreted from the table that in all the cases, the marketable surplus was found to be greater than the net marketed surplus. Disposal of production and marketable and marketed surplus of mango. That means only requirement share was highest in Mohajon para and for the other areas, its share was lower. Notably the total requirement for jackfruit was higher for Ghagra in Mohajon para.
The same pattern was also observed in case of marketable surplus. In case of a marketable surplus, it can be interpreted from the table that Mohajon para had the highest marketable surplus for jackfruit pcs because of the fact that their average total production was higher than the other areas. The share of the marketable surplus was lower for Paglachora para 16 pcs , followed by laymipara 27 pcs , Farukpara 45 pcs , Getsimanipara 70 pcs , Ramripara 71 pcs , and Munlaypara 89 pcs of Bandarban.
Disposal of Production and Marketable and marketed surplus of Jackfruit. That implies, only requirement share was highest in Munlaypara and for the other areas, its share was lower. Notably the total requirement was higher for Munlaypara in Bandarban, the same pattern was also observed for marketable surplus. The second highest marketable surplus was counted for Manikchori in Rangamati and the marketable surplus for litchi was pcs per household.
Disposal of production and marketable and marketed surplus of litchi.
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International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, , 6 1 : 4. Factors Affecting Sustainable Market Linkage For enhancing sustainable market linkage of selected fruits in Chittagong hill tracts, it was observed that some factors were responsible for the sustainable market linkage development.
This part has been presented to illustrate factor analysis to identify the major dimensions for the market linkage. Factors affecting sustainable market linkage. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. Source: Authors Calculation, Factor Analysis This analysis that explains most of the variance observed in the much larger number of manifest variables by reducing the number of causes to a few factors.
The analysis determined causes that affect market linkage in the development of selected fruits in the study area. The analysis used principle component method to extract the factors with varimax rotation technique. Table 8 shows the results of the factor analysis for the sustainable market linkage of seasonal fruits. Since from 14 to 35 th component were having total Eigen values less than one, but because of lower loading factor, only four components were selected from the particular variable which has been included as a factor that was made on the basis of whether the correlation value factor loadings was high or not Table 8.
The result suggested that these factors were mainly responsible for affecting the market linkage development in the study area. In this model, factors were considered as a variable. This model was also fruitful to find out the relationship between dependent variable and independent variable.
Here, dependent variable was fruit supplied mango, jackfruit and litchi by fruit growers and independent variables were heavy rainfall, long term summer, fruit disease, climate change, product perishability, religion, education, family size, culture, poverty, market price, high input price, capital, credit availability, labor wages, fruit variety, location of market, market structure, marketing policy, consumer choice, consumer number, fruit supply, number of traders etc.
Table 8. It was also observed that other fruits like jackfruit and litchi were sold more in the local market rather than supplying it to the distant market. It is more apparent for all three of the seasonal fruits that, the marketable surplus was found to be higher than the net marketed surplus. Analyzing the factors that are affecting sustainable market linkage, it was found that the results of factor analysis is useful and have good extraction value.
It means farmer retains more for consumption and other uses than the actual amount marketed. If marketed surplus could be enhanced with the increase of marketable surplus, it would ultimately help fruit grower to link themselves with the market and increase their revenue. So, proper steps regarding this matter need to be taken by the relevant bodies.
Since some varieties are found to be dominant i. So, Government and local body should take initiatives to encourage the farmer to adopt some varieties which were not so prevalent in some areas. Competing Interests: The author declares that there are no conflicts of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
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The research work had been undertaken in the project areas of Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. A study of Boro paddy prices in some selected areas of Tangail. Alagh, M.
Assessment of marketed and marketable surplus of major food grains in Gujarat. Alam, S. Marketable and marketed surpluses of some leading crops in Bangladesh: Recent trends and policy implications. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Economics, 25 2 : Aujla, K. Abbas, K. Mahmood and S. Saadullah, Where there is intra-regional trade in grains, between developing countries it is most often based on periodic shortages arising from drought civil strife. As such, export demand is usually short-lived and often financed by donor agencies, and the exporting country cannot make any long term plans to develop the trade.
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At the outset of this chapter it was observed that in an introductory textbook, such as this one, there were severe constraints on the range of agricultural commodities which could be discussed and that the author had to be highly selective. This is equally true of this section where the reader will find that the discussion is largely confined to livestock and meat. There simply is not the opportunity to extend the discussion, in this textbook, to the wide variety of animal by-products that could be exploited after the meat has been utilised.
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Related Marketed and Marketable Surplus of Major Food Grains in India
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