Methods of Long Term Underground Storage

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Proper Storage Methods

This is because the enzymes that cause browning are still active in the potato, even under freezing temperatures Do not store them in a sealed container without ventilation, such as a zipped plastic bag or lidded glassware. Without air circulation, the moisture released from the potatoes will collect inside the container and promote the growth of mold and bacteria While it may be tempting to rinse off the dirt before storing, they will last longer if you keep them dry.

Wait until you are ready to use them, then rinse and scrub them with a vegetable brush to remove any remaining dirt. Many fruits and vegetables release ethylene gas as they ripen, which helps soften the fruit and increase its sugar content If stored in close proximity, ripening produce can make raw potatoes sprout and soften more quickly While no studies have looked at how far potatoes should be kept from ripening fruits or vegetables, storing at opposite ends of a cool, dark, well-ventilated pantry is likely effective.

You can use a small dark closet or empty stand-up shower with a space heater and bowl of water, or an empty oven left slightly ajar, lit with a watt light bulb for heat and bowl of water for humidity. These conditions allow the skins to thicken and help heal any minor injuries that may have occurred during harvesting, reducing the chances of decay during storage This is because they contain an enzyme called polyphenol oxidase, which reacts with oxygen and turns the flesh a grey or brownish color.

However, if left in water for more than 24 hours, they can absorb too much water and become soggy and tasteless. Only use this technique for potatoes that will be cooked the same day. Vacuum-packed potatoes will last up to one week in the refrigerator However, leftovers may become watery or gummy, since potato starches change shape and release water as they cool Cooking and cooling also increase the formation of resistant starch , a type of carbohydrate that humans cannot digest and absorb.

Resistant starch also promotes gut health, since gut bacteria ferment it and produce short chain fatty acids, which help keep the lining of your large intestine healthy and strong 25 , 26 , While cooked and cooled potatoes have some health benefits , they should be eaten within three or four days to avoid spoilage and food poisoning Cooked leftovers can be stored in the freezer without browning, since cooking destroys the enzymes responsible for discoloration Like all frozen products, leftover potatoes will last longest if they are protected from air while in the freezer.

Research shows that frozen, cooked potato products can last up to one year without any significant changes in quality This results in a better texture than defrosting in a microwave You may also consider trying some of the more exotic potato varieties, such as those with blue or purple flesh.

Studies show that vibrantly colored varieties contain much larger amounts of antioxidants than traditional white potatoes Store uncooked potatoes in a cool, dark place with plenty of air circulation — not in the refrigerator. In the case of groundwater intrusion into the containment system, the integrity of the containment system could be destroyed because of the volume expansion of the groundwater during the freezing process. Therefore, the location and thickness of the ice ring are important factors for the stable storage of LNG in a lined rock cavern.

Combined hydro-thermal numerical models were adapted and used for investigating relevant mechanisms such as propagation of the cold front, and migration of water and ice formation in the host rock mass. Ice ring in rock mass below the cavern is thicker than other regions. Dry zone inside of ice ring is obtained with thickness of maximum 2m. Until August 10 th , ice ring is fully formed in surrounding rock. However, ice ring contacts partially the corner between wall and floor. It is found from comparison with the early interpretation of the geophysical campaign data that the real process of ice ring formation is very similar to the result from two dimensional simulations Fig.

Horizontal slice was made at the elevation a above and b at the level of the storage cavern. Shows the processes of ice ring formation by three dimensional simulations when the access tunnel is considered. Due to concrete wall exposed to the open air, ice ring was not formed and groundwater penetrated to a portion of the cavern.

From the hydro-thermal coupled analyses for simulating ice ring formation in the LNG pilot cavern, the following conclusions were drawn:. K in the containment system with 10 cm thick insulation panel. When the containment system with more thick non-reinforced PU foam such as 30 cm or 40 cm is considered, the coefficient would be reduced down to about 0. Because consideration of this coefficient is very important in rock mass above the cavern, probable range of the coefficient in full-scale cavern model with standard insulation specification should be obtained by appropriate numerical scheme for design purpose.

The temperature dependency of the input properties must be considered for appropriate modeling of the cryogenic environment. Particularly when the temperature range of the simulation is wide, the variation of properties has to be taken into account.

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Numerical simulation with thermal properties of dry rock obtained by laboratory could effectively estimate the real temperature profiles in rock mass around a cavern. The capability of hydro-thermal modeling of ice ring formation has been verified by a comparison of numerical results with in-situ measurement data. Therefore, a similar approach could be extended to the simulation of ice ring formation in a full-scale LNG storage cavern.

In order to keep the continuous propagation of zero degree isotherms, groundwater close to cavern end faces should be effectively drained.

Proper Storage Methods

This new concept of LNG storage in membrane lined rock cavern is valid for any type of export or receiving terminal, but also for peak-shaving or large capacity stockpile storage. Layout of the underground storage system and the number of storage caverns can be varied with storage capacity of LNG. The drainage system of the lined underground LNG storage cavern is composed of drainage tunnel excavated beneath the cavern and drain holes drilled on rock surface of the drainage tunnel Fig. After the access tunnel for constructing caverns reaches to depth of cavern bottom, drainage access tunnel is excavated by depth of drainage tunnel bottom.

And then drainage tunnels are excavated in parallel to the cavern with a little longer length than that. On the surface of the drainage tunnel, several drain holes should be drilled upward and arranged with same spacing. Drain holes outside the cavern boundary are inclined with a steep slope and those within the cavern boundary have a gentle slope. The reason why drain holes are upward is that the drainage system is designed to let the groundwater be drained only by gravitational forces.

That is, the groundwater within rock.

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In order to de-saturate sufficiently rock mass around the cavern, the position and horizontal spacing of drain holes should be designed efficiently. Geometry of the storage cavern should be adapted to local geological and hydro-geological conditions of the LNG terminal facilities. A wide variety of different geometries can be considered.

The general cross section of storage gallery is comparable to unlined underground storage technology, with horse shape galleries. Dimension of the gallery is typical 30 m height by 20 m width, which can be adapted to rock conditions. The length of cavern can be from m up to m, which depends upon the unit capacity per gallery.

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The equipment of storage cavern is similar to the ones of a conventional LNG terminal, allowing it to operate in exactly the same way as an aboveground tank Fig. Internal piping arrangement is also similar to the one of a membrane LNG storage tank. All pipes are embedded in a concrete structure near the bottom of the operation shaft. Inside the cavern the pipes are joined together by braces forming a pipe tower designed to permit differential pipe contraction.

There are many advantages of underground storage in terms of safety, security and environmental acceptability compared with aboveground tanks and in-ground tanks:. Required area at grade depending on storage type for , m3 Orange colour means a storage space, purple colour means the required aboveground space. Underground storage in the form of a gallery of around 20m width by 30m height cross section Fig.

Moreover, mining technologies and membrane containment system have such flexibility that unit storage capacity has no limit. Crude oil caverns are up to 4,, m 3 in Korea and LNG lined caverns can be increased till such value.

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This comparative cost estimate between aboveground and cavern storage concerns only the storage itself and its equipment. It does not take into account the substantial cost saving which could be made, in the case of the cavern storage, for the safety equipment impounding basin, peripheral retention wall, firefighting systems, etc. Moreover, operation costs, including maintenance are very attractive.

Construction costs of varying stored volume from , kl to 1,, kl with increment of , kl were evaluated and compared with reference price as of March in Korea Fig. Moreover, operation cost for underground storage units are highly competitive as compared to aboveground and in-ground tanks as systems like slab heating or fire water are not necessary or can be tremendously reduced.

An innovative method of LNG storage in lined rock caverns has been developed to provide a safe and cost-effective solution. It consists of protecting the host rock against the extremely low temperature and providing a liquid and gas tight liner. To demonstrate the technical feasibility of this method, a pilot plant was constructed at KIGAM area and had been operated from January to the end of From construction and operation of Daejeon pilot plant, technical feasibility of underground lined rock storage system can be well proved.

And the real scale applicability of it has been evaluated by the results from a successful operation of the pilot plant. As compared with the conventional aboveground and in-ground storage tanks, the use of lined rock cavern LNG storage system at the LNG terminals can be more economical way in the aspects of capital expenditures and operating expenditures.

These criteria are applied to investigate the integrity and stability of caverns based on stability parameter which, in turn, corresponding to design concept. It is comprised in 6 groups: No or low dilatant zone: as dilation occurs in rock salt resulting in strength loss at such the condition suspect that introduced shear stress cause failure Brouard et al.

No or low tensile zone: generally, cavern is subjected in compression, but when the cavern pressure is low and cavern profile including no non-convex portions, tensile zones are introduced in which lead to roof and wall spalling Karimi-Jafari et al.

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No or low tensile effective stress Brouard et al. Low volume loss or low volume loss rate Brouard et al. Subsidence Brouard et al. Strain — Creep, accumulated strain must not be larger than a certain amount. No or low dilatant zone: as dilation occur in rock salt resulting in strength loss at such the condition suspect that introduced shear stress cause failure Brouard et al.

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On one hand, the Low volume loss and Subsidence are almost same which have low applicability. On other hand, the 4th, 5th and 6th have not been applied in engineering works. So in following, we only focus on the others. Generally, the tensile strength of rock salt 1. So, it must be neglected in designing.

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Karimi-Jafari et al. Various factors such as over-pressuring, thermal shocks resulting from fast cold during withdrawn and existence of an extended roof, cause tensile stress around caverns. Large tensile stresses cause the cracks to be generated in which resulting in fracturing and spalling on wall and roof.

In general, stresses around cavern are compressive, but in following cases, the tensile stress would be appeared around cavern:. When cavern pressure suddenly decreased pressure loss cause the temperature of gas to be decreased , temperature loss depends on production rate, size and shape of cavern. Tensile stresses resulting from temperature loss. As tensile stress is larger than the difference between geostatic and cavern pressure, the microcracks are generated more detail are discussed in: Bauer and Sobolik, ; Staudtmeister and Zapf, ; Karimi-Jafari et al.

In most cases, depth of these microcracks are low and perpendicular to cavern wall. As the depth of the cracks becomes larger, distance between two cracks becomes larger as well, in which resulting in slabs of rock salt cut off from cavern wall.

Methods of Long Term Underground Storage Methods of Long Term Underground Storage
Methods of Long Term Underground Storage Methods of Long Term Underground Storage
Methods of Long Term Underground Storage Methods of Long Term Underground Storage
Methods of Long Term Underground Storage Methods of Long Term Underground Storage
Methods of Long Term Underground Storage Methods of Long Term Underground Storage

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