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Plants were then cut 20 cm below the top of head, which was trimmed to obtain a marketable product. Head diameter was measured across the widest part of the head. SPAD chlorophyll meter estimates total chlorophyll amounts in leaves in a non-destructive method Neufeld et al. For each plant, measurements were taken at four locations on each leaf, two on each side of the midrib on all fully expanded leaves Khan et al. Bacterial strains were originally isolated from the rhizosphere of tea plants naturally grown in Rize, Turkey, and identified as Bacillus cereus , Brevibacillus reuszeri , and Rhizobium rubi based on fatty acid methyl ester analysis using the MIDI system Sherlock Microbial Identification System Version 4.
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For this experiment, the bacterial strains were grown on nutrient agar. AOAC, Control plants were dipped into sterile water. The bacterial strains Bacillus cereus and Rhizobium rubi were able to grow in N-free basal medium indicating its N-fixing potential. In the present study, P-solubilizing activities of Brevibacillus reuszeri and Rhizobium rubi were measured according to the qualitative methods Mehta and Nautiyal, At heading is a good time to assess the relationship between broccoli nutrient content and soil nutrient pools Jones et al.
Experiments were repeated in 2 years. Each experiment consisted of a randomized complete block experimental design with three blocks. Means were separated by Duncan's multiple range tests. There were no significant interactions by year; therefore, the data were pooled. There were no significant interactions for effects across years for the characteristics investigated. Across 2 years, bacterial treatments increased head yield per plant, plant weight, stem diameter, head diameter, and chlorophyll reading values but not head dry matter ratio or leaf dry matter ratio of broccoli in this study compared with control Table 2.
Effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria applications on plant yield, yield parameters, and total chlorophyll content of broccoli plant. Lowest head yield per plant, plant weight, stem diameter, head diameter, and chlorophyll reading values were recorded in the control. Highest head yield per plant, plant weight, stem diameter, head diameter, and chlorophyll reading values were obtained from mineral fertilizer and RR inoculations with manure application. Relative yield, which is the broccoli yield expressed as percentage of the highest yield obtained from mineral fertilizer application, was the Citation: HortScience horts 46, 6; SPAD chlorophyll values of broccoli leaves were correlated with tissue total N concentrations from the laboratory analysis, which means that chlorophyll values increased values with PGPR treatments Table 2 ; Fig.
Results showed bacterial inoculations significantly affected ionic compositions of plant leaves Fig. Leaf nutrient content for K, Mn, and Zn increased This is the first study to demonstrate that PGPR root inoculation with manure can increase yield, growth, and PNE contents of broccoli plants.
Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria for Horticultural Crop Protection
Two years of trials under field conditions showed that inoculations with Bacillus cereus , Brevibacillus reuszeri , and Rhizobium rubi significantly increased yield, yield parameters, and PNE uptake of broccoli. However, the strain B. Bacterial applications with manure positively affected head yield per plant, plant weight, stem diameter, head diameter, and chlorophyll reading compared with the control; and RR was the most effective PGPR in the treatment. The yield and plant growth enhancement effects of bacteria used in this study on broccoli could be explained with the N 2 -fixing and P-solubilizing capacity of bacteria.
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Numerous studies have shown the improvement in plant growth and development in response to seed or root inoculation with various microbial inoculants capable of producing plant growth regulators Zahir et al. Trials with rhizosphere-associated plant growth-promoting N 2 -fixing and P-solubilizing bacteria indicated yield increases in many crops such as wheat Ozturk et al.
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Because of their spore-forming ability, plant growth-promoting strains are readily adaptable to commercial formulation and field application Liu and Sinclair, The positive effects of Bacillus and Rhizobium on the yield and growth of crops such as chickpea, apple, strawberry, spinach, tomatoes, sugar beet, barley, and wheat were explained by N 2 -fixation ability, phosphate-solubilizing capacity, indole acetic acid, and antimicrobial substance production Cakmakci et al. The effect of PGPR applications on chlorophyll readings in the study is in good agreement with the results of Yildirim et al.
PGPR treatments gave elevated reading values when compared with the non-inoculated controls in these studies.
They proved that SPAD chlorophyll meter readings in leaves were correlated with tissue total N concentrations. In this study, it was found that bacterial treatments increased PNE contents of broccoli plants compared with the control. Enhancement of mineral uptake by plants should result in an increased accumulation of minerals in leaves of the plant. Bacterial inoculations with manure significantly also increased uptake of macronutrients and micronutrients by broccoli.
On the other hand, the PGPR have been reported to promote the growth of the plant and increase the root surface area or the general root architecture. Plants growing better in turn release higher amounts of carbon C in root exudates. The release of more C prompts an increase in microbial activity, and this process continues in a cycle.
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The whole process makes more nutrients available from the soil pool, influencing nutrient flux into plant roots, and the plant is able to take up more available nutrients Adesemoye et al. The present study demonstrates that PGPR applications in addition to manure can be used to increase broccoli growth and yield without using mineral fertilizer. Efficient plant nutrition management should ensure both enhanced and sustainable agricultural production and safeguard the environment.
Obviously, the use of chemical fertilizers and manures cannot be eliminated at this time without drastically decreasing food production. At the same time, the harmful environmental side effects of fertilizer use such as leaching, runoff, emission, and eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems worldwide cannot go unabated. Hence, there is an urgent need for integrated nutrient management that targets agricultural inputs and lowers the adverse environmental impacts of agricultural fertilizers and practices. Chemical, organic, or microbial fertilizer has its advantages and disadvantages in terms of nutrient supply, soil quality, and crop growth.
So, developing a suitable nutrient management system that integrates use of these three kinds of fertilizers may be a challenge to reach the goal of sustainable agriculture.
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