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RefWorks - free for UC Berkeley users. It allows you to create your own database by importing references and using them for footnotes and bibliographies. Contact Jim Church. In this study I will begins the exploration of theories of development by comparing and contrasting neo-evolutionary, modernisation theories of development, which were first prominent in the s.
I will also discus the emergence of neo-modernisation theory in light of the success of the East Asian newly industrialising countries and the fall of the Soviet Union. Also, sociology of development in the context of developing nation like ours Nigeria have to evolve how individual is developed this individual development will give birth to national development.
When individual is economically, politically, culturally even socially and other development facet the national development will be guaranteed. What make a nation is individual. Another interesting angle to this issue is that since a nation is made up of individuals, when these individuals are successful and practice workable and success-driven developmental principles, it will result in a successful nation with a proclivity towards development. In the contrary, when the individuals in a nation are full of pessimism, low self-esteem, personal doubts, lack of drive, a growing sense of languor, discouragement and negative and fatalistic tendencies, this build-up of negativism and limiting tendencies will work against any genuine efforts aimed at personal development.
Such nations also run open societies, a merit-based system, an equitable social and economic system, political inclusiveness, rule of law, promotion of human rights, sterling, accountable and people-focused leadership, and generally a society that abhors discrimination and extra-judicial considerations in the apportionment of scarce resources in the state. Meanwhile, it is axiomatic to note that personal development is simply the development at the personal level.
This development requires more commitment that should be inspired from within the individual than it should be from the outside.
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Abiola, Nelson Mandela, Ben Carson, Mohammed Ali, Barack Obama, are a reflection of the personal determination of these people to survive against all odds; odds that ranged from societal and racial discrimination and limitations, poverty, political persecution, and different forms of deprivations. There are many different self-help movements and each has its own unique focus, techniques, associated beliefs, proponents and in some cases leaders.
It goes further to say that whatever an individual wants in life, he or she has the power to acquire the knowledge, to get the mechanics or resources the person needs, but to most people, taking action on that goal is the biggest obstacle on the road to success. Personal development, therefore, covers a wider field than self-development or self-help because personal development also includes developing others. This may take place through roles such as those of a teacher or mentor, through a personal competency such as the skill of certain managers in developing the potential of employees , or through a professional service such as providing training, assessment or coaching.
National Development: National development, on the other hand, is the ability of a country or countries to improve the social welfare of the people, namely, by providing social amenities like good education, pipe-borne water, etc. In discussing national development, one needs to look at economic development, socio-cultural integration and development and how these cascade to human development.
Without human development, which is the development of the human capital of a nation or its citizens, national development can be thwarted or defeated.
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As Ranis et al. With the increase in economic growth, families and individuals will likely increase expenditures with the increase in income, an increase that can lead to greater human development. Aristotle defined personal development as a type of practical wisdom that translates to living well for the individual, while Confucius posited that personal development can be found in the extension of knowledge which lies in the investigation of things.
Chickering and Reisser identified seven vectors of personal development as including developing competence, managing emotions, achieving autonomy and interdependence, developing mature interpersonal relationships, establishing identity, developing purpose and developing integrity. In viewing national development, the modernization theory states that development can be achieved through following the processes of development that were used by the currently developed countries. Scholars such as Walt Rostow and A.
Organski developed stages of development through which every country develops Preston, ; Rostow, Samuel Huntington determined development to be a linear process which every country must go through Huntington, ; Preston, This theory believes that development can only be achieved in developing countries with the assistance of developed countries.
While the modernization theorists understood development and underdevelopment as a result from internal conditions that differ between economies, dependency theory understood development and underdevelopment as relational. It saw the world's nations as divided into a core of wealthy nations which dominate a periphery of poor nations whose main function in the system is to provide cheap labor and raw materials to the core. It held that the benefits of this system accrue almost entirely to the rich nations, which become progressively richer and more developed, while the poor nations, which continually experience expropriation of their surpluses to the core, do not advance.
Dependency theory shares many points with Marxist theories of imperialism; and is actually embraced by many Marxists and neo-Marxists today. One type of policy crafted from this insight was import substitution industrialization. The World Systems theory is a response to some of the criticisms of Dependency Theory, and further divided the bifurcation between the periphery and the core into a trimodal system consisting of the core, semi-periphery and periphery.
World Systems Theory was initiated by Immanuel Wallerstein in, among other writings, World Systems Analysis, and focuses on inequality as a separate entity from growth in development and examines change in the global capitalist system. This theory breeds anti-systemic movements which attempt to reverse the terms of the system's inequality through social democratic and labor movements.
In response to the distrust of the state, in World Systems Theory, is state theory. State Theory is based upon the view that the economy is intertwined with politics and therefore the take-off period in development is unique to each country. State Theory emphasized the effects of class relations and the strength and autonomy of the state on historical outcomes.
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Thus, development involves interactions between the state and social relations because class relations and the nature of the state impact the ability of the state to function. Development is dependent upon state stability and external as well as internal influence.
The theory of uneven and combined development is a Marxist concept that describes the overall dynamics of human history. It was originally used by the Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky around the turn of the 20th century, when he was analyzing the developmental possibilities that existed for the economy and civilization in the Russian empire, and the likely future of the Tsarist regime in Russia. It was the basis of his political strategy of permanent revolution, which implied a rejection of the idea that a human society inevitably developed through a unilinear sequence of necessary "stages.
His focus was also initially mainly on the history of the Russian empire, where the most advanced technological and scientific developments co- existed with extremely primitive and superstitious cultures. However, in the s and s, he increasingly generalized the concept of uneven and combined development to the whole of human history, and even to processes of evolutionary biology, as well as the formation of the human personality Cowen and Shenton, ; Development Theory, However, in developing societies like Nigeria, food, shelter and clothing are hard to come by for many citizens, hence limiting all efforts made towards personal development.
This situation does not apply in many developed societies where food, shelter and clothing are readily available for citizens. For national development, the Nigerian situation seems to defy any theoretical postulation.
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However, as the Modernization theorists postulated, Nigerian leaders and policy makers have a lot to learn from the development efforts of advanced economies if the country is to achieve any appreciable level of development. More than this, Nigerian leaders must imbibe accountable, transparent and committed leadership traits exhibited in advanced societies so that developmental policies and programs would be pursued to their logical conclusions for the good of the people. While we do not agree with the dependency theorists that developing nations should sever their ties with developed countries, because no country can isolate itself in a globalised economy as we have today, we are of the opinion that developing economies can achieve development by pursuing internal growth and correcting the many internal contradictions within their economies.
However, the state theory gives hope to developing nations because it states that development and underdevelopment is relational and depends on the capacity of each state. Therefore, by addressing the political and economic challenges faced by developing nations, developing societies can achieve development for their people. Achieving Personal Development In achieving personal development, therefore, it follows that one must understand its characteristics and how it can be made to work for the personal.
National Development: The Nigerian Case Over the years, the government of Nigeria has taken steps to launch different programs it considered apposite for sustainable development for Nigeria. However, Nigerians are yet to begin to feel the impact of these developmental programs, as successive governments have busied themselves in cancelling the developmental programs before them and creating their own. This rapid shift in policy formulation and weak policy implementation process has not helped to further the development agenda of government nor have they advanced the lives of Nigerians as a people.
Our country is so richly blessed that it has no reasons to be at or near the bottom of the world development table. It should not be a struggling developing nation but a developed one. It has an estimated population of over million and a highly articulate and educated work force. State governments budget their annual capital and recurrent expenditures in billions of Naira.
Given our resource endowments, this sorry state is a serious indictment" Adamu, Agriculture was the mainstay of the national economy before the discovery of crude oil in commercial quantities in the mid-fifties. There could be no greater pity for the national economy than that these programs failed to achieve their set objectives. Nigeria is still a net importer of food, poultry, beef and diary, spending as much as two million dollars annually on these and other food items.
Its arable lands are still not lush green with cash and food crops Adamu, The fault was not in the programs, but in policy instability that appears to have been accepted as a normal way of doing government business in the country.
Perhaps, if these policies had been sustained and occasionally retuned and retooled by successive administrations, the national economy would have been healthier today. The economy was also largely public sector-driven. Federal and state governments invested directly in virtually all areas of economic activities. State governments even owned breweries, transport services and retail companies. The state was thus in the commanding height of the national economy.
The rationale was that the country did not have enough indigenous entrepreneurs to invest in these and other areas of the economy.
It did not help matters that the government-owned companies, be they federal or state, were inefficient and wasteful. They became bottomless pits and a drain on the public purse. The mixed economy model of development fell out of favor with economists and economic planners elsewhere in the world in the early seventies. Public sector-driven economies began to give way to private sector-driven economies. This was a major, global paradigm shift.
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The economy was ailing. The Bretton Woods Institutions designed the structural adjustment program for ailing third world economies. The policy aimed at: restructuring and diversifying the productive base of the economy in order to reduce dependence on the oil sector and imports; achieving a fiscal and balance of payment viability over the medium term, and laying the basis for a sustainable non-inflationary growth over the medium and the long-terms.
Under the program, government embarked on partial or full privatization of its companies and parastatals.
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