The Inorganic Chemistry of Materials: How to Make Things out of Elements


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Molecules associated with living organisms are organic. These include nucleic acids, fats, sugars, proteins, enzymes, and hydrocarbon fuels. All organic molecules contain carbon, nearly all contain hydrogen, and many also contain oxygen. Inorganics include salts, metals, substances made from single elements and any other compounds that don't contain carbon bonded to hydrogen.

Some inorganic molecules do, in fact, contain carbon. Few organic compounds don't contain carbon-hydrogen bonds. Examples of these exceptions include:. While most organic compounds encountered in chemistry are produced by living organisms, it's possible for the molecules to form through other processes.

For example, when scientists talk about organic molecules discovered on Pluto, this doesn't mean there are aliens on the world. Solar radiation can provide energy to produce organic compounds from inorganic carbon compounds. Share Flipboard Email. Helmenstine holds a Ph.

This property gives silicon the capability for use in electronic materials and devices to make 1s and 0s that translate computer code into electrical impulses. Coupled with the fact that silicon is one of the more abundant elements on the planet, it is set to be in use for the foreseeable future, maybe it will never go out of fashion.

8 Lesser-Known, Useful Elements

The age of information technology could have been made possible without silicon, but it may have taken a lot longer and not be as prominent today as it is. Oxygen was discovered by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele in He discovered that by heating mercuric oxide, a gas later identified as oxygen formed.

This story starts with Plato and his ideas on the nature of matter. Plato was a Greek philosopher who suggested that all matter was made of four essential elements — fire, air, earth, and water. The main precept of Phlogiston theory was that fire was itself an element, so at the time when something burned, the flames were considered evidence that fire as an element was being separated from the material.

It was Lavoisier who named the element, oxygen. By throwing out the Phlogiston theory, Lavoisier paved the way for modern chemistry. That made for dramatic changes in the science thereafter, and it was due in large part to the discovery of oxygen. Upon its discovery by French astronomer Pierre J. Janssen in , helium was thought to exist on the sun, but not here on the earth.

As he was observing a solar eclipse in India, Janssen noticed a bright yellow spectral line. The sun shines every day. Regardless of how far north or south you live on this planet, the sun can still reach you. The sun is a great big ball of fire several million miles away. The light that you see from the sun comes from all the photons being sent out into space from the sun, and the color of the light can be used to determine what elements are present thanks to our understanding of electron energy levels and atomic spectroscopy.


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In short the theory goes like this. Each electron has a certain discreet energy level, and when the electron is excited you can see the energy levels using a prism, for example. A prism splits up white light; it slows it down due to diffraction, and you can get the full spectrum of the rainbow from white light. But some sources of white light are missing some bands of the rainbow colors; this depends on the source of the light.

Chemical substance - Wikipedia

It was by looking at the sun with such a setup that helium was first discovered. The light from the sun had bands in it that were composed of an unknown material, like nothing that had been analyzed on earth yet. It was named after the sun, Helios. The discoverer Pierre J. Janssen had to travel to India to make his observation during a solar eclipse in But it was later discovered that helium is present on the Earth, and later yet was discovered among uranium minerals.

You just have to learn to look in the right way. There are many words and terms that are specific to chemistry, in this case inorganic chemistry. Here is a list of some of the most common and most interesting terms you need to know. Born-Haber cycle: An important thermodynamic calculation that is used to quantify the energy involved in making ionic compounds.


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They can be single, double, or triple bonds. Covalent bonds have directionality. Cations experience higher covalent character according to increasing charge density. In anions, the degree of covalent bonding increases with increasing polarizability of the ion. Forms the basic understanding required to complete a calculation using the Born-Haber cycle. Electrons can be added, or removed to reached the neutral atom.

Reactants to Products

In a chemical reaction if the oxidation number increases, the element is reduced. In resonance processes, electrons are delocalized and the energy of the electrons are stabilized. Not all reactions create the most thermodynamic product; some are controlled by kinetics instead.

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Cheat Sheet. The Periodic Table The table is like a shelf that is used to organize all the elements found in nature, and some that are man-made even.

Good things come in small packages.

The periodic table can be used to determine the following properties of materials: Atomic number Z : Elements are all organized according to their atomic number and arranged in order from low atomic numbers to high atomic numbers. The periodic table. Modern Marvels Due to Inorganic Chemistry Since the dawn of human kind, materials have played a pivotal role to our existence. Important Chemistry Terms There are many words and terms that are specific to chemistry, in this case inorganic chemistry.

The Inorganic Chemistry of Materials: How to Make Things out of Elements The Inorganic Chemistry of Materials: How to Make Things out of Elements
The Inorganic Chemistry of Materials: How to Make Things out of Elements The Inorganic Chemistry of Materials: How to Make Things out of Elements
The Inorganic Chemistry of Materials: How to Make Things out of Elements The Inorganic Chemistry of Materials: How to Make Things out of Elements
The Inorganic Chemistry of Materials: How to Make Things out of Elements The Inorganic Chemistry of Materials: How to Make Things out of Elements
The Inorganic Chemistry of Materials: How to Make Things out of Elements The Inorganic Chemistry of Materials: How to Make Things out of Elements
The Inorganic Chemistry of Materials: How to Make Things out of Elements The Inorganic Chemistry of Materials: How to Make Things out of Elements
The Inorganic Chemistry of Materials: How to Make Things out of Elements The Inorganic Chemistry of Materials: How to Make Things out of Elements

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